I kindly thank the reviewers for their careful reading, and their
valuable suggestions for improvement.
The parts of the paper that have been added or significantly changed
are shown in bold in the supplementary file of the new manuscript.
I hereafter answer to each point raised by the reviewers by describing
the changes that have been made.
# Approach name
> review 1
> I am not sure it is wise to name the approach CNN, since the acronym
> has become synonymous with Convolutional Neural Networks. It may be
> difficult for people to find this paper, especially if all they
> remember is that it is called CNN.
True. Given that this name has already been used in former
publications, it is difficult to make a radical change. We replaced
CNN by C-NN, which has a nice analogy with k-NN for the classical
nearest neighbour approach.
# The big picture
> review 2
> Overall, the paper is written in a very confusing style. Although a
> running example is used, it is often hard to grasp the idea and the
> example per se. What would help is a big picture explaining how the
> different pieces (queries, answers, extensions, intensions, neighbors,
> inference, ...) fit together and how they are combined in order to
> produce a prediction. For the actual prediction part, I miss a
> pseudocode explaining how the approach actually computes an inference.
Thank you for the suggestion of "a big picture", we agree that this
was missing. We added a short section "Overview of the Approach",
before the technical sections, supported by a new figure showing the
whole workflow of the approach in a schematic way. The new section
summarizes the whole approach along with a small running example, and
with references to the relevant sections. We hope that it will
facilitate the reading of the paper.
A pseudocode algorithm (Algorithm 2) was added to explain the
inference and ranking process.
# Formal terminology
> review 1
> I think the terminology and use of definitions and symbols can be
> simplified, and I encourage you to do so to make your theory more
We strived to simplify and clarify the technical sections. In
particular, in Section "Concepts of Nearest Neighbours", we added
before each formal definition a short paragraph to provide context and
intuition about what is defined and why.
We also significantly simplified the very definition of C-NNs
(Definition 3). Table 1 has been changed accordingly.
> review 1
> I think the paper makes a valid and different contribution to the
> field; hence, it should be accepted, even though it's not without some
> limitations, mainly that I am not confident that it can be applied to
> large-scale knowledge graphs due to its reliance
> anytime-computation. In contrast, embeddings are only linear in the
> total numbers of relations and entities.
> review 2
> It would be good to address the scalability limitations in the
> beginning of the paper. It seems to me that storing the KG in memory
> is important for the practical merits of this approach. Either way,
> this needs to be mentioned somewhere in the introduction.
We added the following paragraph in the introduction:
«The combinatorial aspect of graph patterns over knowledge graphs is
tackled by delaying their computation to inference time, which enables
to bound the number of C-NNs by the number of entities, and in
practice it is generally much smaller. The intensive knowledge-based
computation at inference time is managed with in-memory KG indices (as
is common in RDF stores), and an any-time algorithm for both C-NN
computation and inference.»
And the following paragraph at the end of the section on C-NNs computation:
«A last point to discuss is the scalability of C-NNs
computation w.r.t. the KG size, i.e. what is the impact of doubling
the number of entities. If we make the reasonable assumption that
the new knowledge follows the same schema as the old knowledge
(e.g., adding film descriptions to a film KG), then the impacts are
that: a) the query answers are two times larger, and b) the number
of C-NNs is somewhere between the same and the double, depending on
the novelty of the new knowledge. As a consequence, if our objective
is to compute a constant number of C-NNs for further inference, then
it suffices to increase timeout linearly with KG size.»
> review 2
> One major claim of the paper is that the inference is
> explainable. However, I find that claim problematic, in particular
> since the paper does not show examples of how such an explanation
> would be presented to a user. Just because the patterns learned are
> explicit, it does not mean that the inference itself is
> explainable. In fact, as the paper claims, many rules are combined
> into a final inference. Which one is then chosen as an explanation? Is
> there a difference whether the inference is created by one strong or
> by 100 weak rules?
This is discussed along with the description of Algorithm 2, in the
new subsection 6.3.
Meta-Review by Editor
Submitted by Tobias Kuhn on
The reviewers agree that the paper has much improved in terms of its presentation and structure. Some considerable issues remain, however, with respect to how scalability and explainability are discussed, as pointed out by reviewer 2.
This acceptance is therefore conditional on the following issues being addressed:
- The issue of scalability needs to be clarified and quantified, as pointed out by reviewer 2. This doesn't need to be a full-blown study, but at least some performance numbers on larger KGs should be shown in order for the reader to get an impression of at which orders of magnitude, if any, the approach stops working efficiently in practice.
- The explainability of the approach needs to be better discussed. I agree with reviewer 2 that a user study would be preferable, but I don't consider this a mandatory addition for acceptance. However, this issue should at least be better underscored with convincing examples and it should be made clear that the "explainability in principle" that this approach provides does not necessarily translate into "practical explainability" that reaches end users. The sub-section that was supposed to address this issue (6.3) seems to be empty (see also below).
- The issues with rules 3 and 4 from the comparison with AnyBURL, as reported by reviewer 2, need to be addressed.
Moreover and in addition to the more minor points mentioned by the reviewers, some layout and language problems remain:
- There are a number of empty elements that seem to point to formatting problems: Definition 3; 4. Overview of the Approach; 6.3. Inference Algorithm and Explanations
- The language and style of the paper should be checked and improved further. For example, what follows after "The main question we answer here is:" is grammatically not a question and therefore hard to read. As another example, a (null) hypothesis is normally said to be "rejected" and not "contradicted".
Tobias Kuhn (http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1267-0234)