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In today’s era, R and Python are one of the most promising tools used in all futuristic technologies. Both R and Python are open source programming languages with an abundant collection of libraries that are added continuously to their catalogue. The focus of this paper is to compare the two technologies and address the confusion of many individuals regarding the choice of programming language to be used. This review proposes a comparative study between Python and R, explaining the benefits and highlighting the differences between the two. Both Python and R are evaluated based on their performance parameters with reference to topics like Big Data, Data Analysis, Internet of Things, Machine Learning and other domains related to Data Science. Python being an object oriented programming language, is a good tool to execute algorithms that are used in production. On the contrary, R is a programming language which is used widely by professional such as statisticians, data analysts. This paper draws a conclusion for the choice of language based on the problem statement in hand.